Thursday, 19 May 2011

Diabetes mellitus types

Author: thiruvelan

Diabetes are broadly classified into 2 groups, they are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. It is sub-classified into pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes.

Diabetes types

Diabetes mellitus can be broadly classified into two categories, they are
• type 1 and
• type 2

Type 2 diabetes has to other sub types, they are
• gestational diabetes and
• pre-diabetes

"Type 1 diabetes" is also being called as childhood-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Likewise, "type 2 diabetes" is also being called as adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).

Beyond these two types, there is no standard diabetes types, but various sources have defined "type 3 diabetes" as: gestational diabetes, insulin-resistant type 1 diabetes or double diabetes, type 2 diabetes which requires injected insulin, and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (or LADA or "type 1.5" diabetes).

Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas which leads to insulin deficiency. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of beta cell loss by autoimmune attack. There is no known preventive measure against type 1 diabetes, which causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults but was previously termed "juvenile diabetes or childhood-onset diabetes" because it represents a majority of the diabetes cases in children.

Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion. The improper utilization or sensitivity of body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the insulin receptor. However, the specific defects are not known, but excess fat deposits in the muscle cell are assumed to be the cause. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes.

In the early stage of type 2 diabetes, the abnormality in insulin sensitivity can be overcome by medication that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce the production of glucose by liver. As the disease progresses, due to low level of insulin secretion a therapeutic replacement of insulin often becomes necessary.

Gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a sub class of type 2 diabetes, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. It occurs in about 2%-5% of all pregnancies and mostly it will disappear after delivery. About 20%-50% of all gestational women develop type-2 diabetes later in their lives.

Even though it may be transient, untreated gestational diabetes can cause health issues for both the fetus and mother. Risks to the baby include high birth weight and breathing difficulties after delivery.

Pre-diabetes mellitus indicates a condition that occurs when a person's blood glucose level is higher than normal but not high enough to diagnose as type-2 diabetes. Many people diagnosed as type-2 diabetes may spend many years in a state of pre-diabetes.

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Diabetes types



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